Guest

On this episode it’s just me and Yosif talking about a variety of hot papers with topics ranging from F-Class stem cells, wolves are better at math than dogs, the NFL is hating on stem cell transplants, STAP author can’t replicate findings, and there are actual sparks when sperm meets egg.

Resources and Links

New Type 2 Diabetes Treatment Cures Lab Animals of Disease – A new treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity has been developed by researchers at Indiana University and the German Research Center for Environmental Health and has essentially cured lab animals of obesity, diabetes and associated lipid abnormalities through improved glucose sensitivity, and reduced appetite and enhanced calorie burning.

Laughing Gas Studied as Depression Treatment – This article reveals a study conducted by researchers on nitrous oxide, the laughing gas, as a potential treatment for severe depression in patients whose symptoms don’t respond to standard therapies.

Curcumin, Compound in Turmeric, Found to Impair Fear Memories and Ease PTSD Symptoms – Scientists have found that curcumin, the principal compound found in turmeric, can impair fear memories involved with the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Rosetta Spacecraft Suggests Asteroids, Not Comets, Birthed Earth’s Oceans – Asteroids, not comets, likely delivered Earth’s ancient oceans from space based on the study from the Rosetta Spacecraft, which is now in orbit around a comet that is a frozen relic from the dawn of the planets.

Oldest Horned Dinosaur Species in North America Found in Montana: Hooked Beak, Sharply Pointed Cheeks Distinguishes Neoceratopsian Species – This article presents the naming of the first definite horned dinosaur species from the Early Cretaceous in North America specifically in Montana as Aquilops americanus, which exhibits definitive neoceratopsian features and is closely related to similar species in Asia.

Scientists Make ‘Feel Full’ Chemical – Based on this article, scientists have created a chemical that can be added to food to make people feel full which will help people to eat less and slow down weight gain.

Gut Microbiota and Parkinson’s Disease: Connection Made – Scientists are trying to determine what is the connection between intestinal microbes and Parkinson’s disease because those who suffer from Parkinson’s have a different microbiota in their intestines than their healthy counterparts.

An Evolutionary Battle Against Bacteria – This article suggests that treating infections from Haemophilus influenzae, one of the bacteria species that causes meningitis, will be more effective if scientists used the evolutionary history of transferrin as a guide for designing transferrin that the bacteria can’t attack.

The Best Sign of Dark Matter Yet? X-ray Signals in Neighbouring Galaxies Could Be Emitted by One of the Universe’s Greatest Mysteries – Two groups of researchers have detected a signal that could prove the existence of dark matter based on their analysis of X-rays emitted by two celestial objects – the Perseus galaxy cluster and the Andromeda galaxy.

How Birds Hear Without Ears – Researchers have determined how birds accurately determine the direction of a sound, even when they do not have the complex external ear structures that most mammals, humans included, boast.

It’s Official! Men Are More Stupid than Women, Says British Medical Journal – A study of 20 years of the Darwin Awards – the annual accolade which recalls foolish ways in which people have died – has revealed that 90% of the awards have been ‘won’ by men.

Testosterone Increases Colon Cancer Risk – This article shows the relationship of testosterone levels with colon tumor growth and that women are less likely than men to develop non-sex specific cancer of the colon, stomach or pancreas due to female hormones such as estrogen.

Dog Brains Process Human Speech in the Same Way We Do – There is a common response between humans and dogs with human speech – communicating not only words but also tone.

Sparks Really Do Fly When a New Life Is Created: Stunning Images Reveal Moment Egg Releases Billions of ‘Zinc Sparks’ as It Is Fertilized – Researchers have developed a special technique to capture the moment of fertilization, and found billions of zinc atoms are released thus causing sparks that literally fly when a sperm and an egg hit it off.

Stunning Zinc Fireworks When Egg Meets Sperm – This article has a movie that shows hot spots of fluorescence at the cell surface demonstrating how groups of zinc-rich packages are released from the egg during fertilization, resulting in a zinc spark.

Curiosity Finds Methane, Other Organics – This article states that NASA’s Curiosity rover has detected both methane in Mars’s atmosphere and carbon-bearing organic compounds in its rocks.

Starving Female Mantises Eat Males Without Having Sex First – Researchers have discovered that starving females will sometimes trick males into thinking they’re full of eggs waiting to be fertilized… but then she eats him without letting him mate with her at all.

Wolves Discriminate Quantities Better than Dogs – This article shows the studies conducted by scientists on how well dogs can discriminate between different quantities and discovered that wolves perform better than dogs at such tasks possibly because dogs lost this skill, or a predisposition for it, during domestication.

Proteome Adaptation in Cell Reprogramming Proceeds via Distinct Transcriptional Networks – This article tries to characterize the reprogramming process of somatic cells into induced pluripotent cells by performing a quantitative mass spectrometry-based analysis to probe in-depth dynamic proteome changes during somatic cell reprogramming.

Small RNA Changes En Route to Distinct Cellular States of Induced Pluripotency – Scientists investigate how microRNA expression changes support the transition to pluripotency and suggests that a novel subset of distinctly expressed miRNAs supports pluripotency in the F-class state, substituting for miRNAs that serve such roles in induced pluripotent stem cells.

Genome-Wide Characterization of the Routes to Pluripotency – This article attempts to address the lack of a complete molecular characterization of the reprograming process by generating an extensive transcriptomic, epigenomic and proteomic data sets describing the reprogramming routes leading from mouse embryonic fibroblasts to induced pluripotency.

An Epigenomic Roadmap To Induced Pluripotency Reveals DNA Methylation As A Reprogramming Modulator – This article reveals the crucial role that DNA methylation plays as an epigenetic switch driving somatic cells to pluripotency.

Divergent Reprogramming Routes Lead To Alternative Stem-Cell States – This article tries to explore alternative outcomes of somatic reprogramming by fully characterizing reprogrammed cells independent of preconceived definitions of iPSC states.

The NFL Has a Problem with Stem Cell Treatments – In this article, professional athletes are getting stem cell treatments to speed up recovery from injury but some doctors say there’s only thin medical evidence they actually speed healing.

Stem Cell Treatment to Repair Torn Meniscus ‘Very, Very Close’ – According to this article, scientists are very to offering patients the chance to regrow their own meniscus by using stem cells to regrow the torn cartilage.

7q11.23 Dosage-Dependent Dysregulation In Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Affects Transcriptional Programs In Disease-Relevant Lineages – In this article, characterization of the impact of human genetic variation on health and disease experimentally tractable is done by enabling the bridging of genotypes to phenotypes in developmentally relevant human cell lineages.